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Without an Incision:

Percutaneous Procedures for Diagnosis & Treatment

Chapter 11

Implantable Epidural Stimulator for Pain Control
The electrodes of an epidural stimulator are placed either through a needle or during open surgery. If the signals block the patient’s pain during testing, then a generator is implanted to send signals to the electrode. The system can be controlled and adjusted with an external controller device.  Illustration with permission of Medtronic, Inc.