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Glossary - E

electrodiagnostic tests:  Electromyography, evoked potentials, and nerve conduction velocity testing, that can be used to evaluate the health and function of nerves or the muscles innervated by them.

 

electromyography:  Monitoring the electrical function of muscles using needles placed into the muscle or monitoring electrodes on the skin surface.

 

electroneural interfaces:  Advanced microchips designed to have direct contact with nerves.

 

eloquent:  Complex neurological function.

 

embolization:  passage of a solid material through the blood stream that may result in blockage of some blood vessels.

 

EMG:  Electromyography.

 

endplates:  The portion of the cortical part bone of the vertebral body that is immediately adjacent to the intervertebral disc.

 

endorphins:  Natural morphine-like substances within the bloodstream.

 

endoscopes:  Tubes used by surgeons to obtain a view within the body without making a large incision, often using fiber optics and video equipment.

 

endotracheal tube:  A tube placed in the throat past the vocal cords used by an anesthesiologist to protect and guarantee good ventilation and breathing during deep anesthesia.

 

entubulation:  A method of repairing nerves involving the use of biosynthetic tube materials to connect the nerves and promote nerve regrowth.

 

EOB:  Explanation of benefits.  A notice from an insurance company explaining the payment or lack of payment for a medical insurance claim.

 

epidural: In the space just outside the dura.

 

epidural abscess:  An infection in the area outside the dura membranes.

 

epidural catheter:  A catheter used to administer pain medication in the area outside the dura.

 

epidural injection:  A generalized type of treatment for spinal pain in which typically steroid medication is spread over an area of dura.

 

epidural stimulator:  A type of electronic device for applying a distracting stimulus to the low spinal cord or nerves with involving the placement of an electrode pad over the dura.

 

epiduroscopy:  The use of a video-based visualization system to advance and move a catheter outside the dura and inside the spinal canal, typically to lyse or breakup adhesions.

 

ergonomics:  The design of furniture, tools, and equipment to minimize undesired physical stress on the human body.

 

esophagus:  The tube carrying food from the throat into the stomach.

 

euphoria:  A state of elation or excitement, typically abnormal, associated with narcotic medication.

 

evoked potentials:  Electrical activity in the brain or nerves caused by computer controlled equipment; typically used to provide monitoring of the nervous system.

 

exercise-based treatments:  Nonsurgical treatment for pain in involving bodily activity to produce relief of the pain.

 

explanation of benefits:  See EOB.

 

exposing:  A portion of a surgery during which the incision is made and retractors are advanced so that the surgeon has direct visualization of the critical part of the spine or nerve to be operated on.

 

extremities:  The arms or legs.

 

extruded disc:  A portion of the nucleus pulposus passes entirely through the annulus fibrosis and is free within the spinal canal.