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Glossary - Sa

 

sacrum:  The vertebrae between the lumbar and caudal region, that are fused together and that also connect through the sacroiliac joint to the iliac blades of the pelvis.

 

scalene muscles:  Muscles that run between the vertebrae of the cervical spine and the first rib.  The major nerves of the brachial plexus between the spine and the arm pass between the anterior and middle scalene muscles.  They may become involved in a pain syndrome called a thoracic outlet syndrome.

 

Schwann cell:  A type of cell that wraps around a nerve and is filled with a fatty material called  myelin. These cells provides the insulation allowing the nerve to rapidly conduct electrical signals.

 

schwannoma:  A usually benign nerve tumor arising in the Schwann cells.

 

sciatic nerve:  A large nerve carrying motor and sensory fibers to the posterior thigh and the leg below the knee.

 

sciatic notch:  An opening in the pelvis through which the sciatic nerve passes from the lower abdomen out into the buttock and upper leg.

 

sciatica:  Pain in the distribution of the sciatic nerve that may involve L4, L5, S1, or S2 dermatomal components.

 

scoliosis:  Curvature of the spine.

 

secondary injury:  Additional injury of  brain or spinal cord, after a primary vascular or traumatic injury. The secondary injury is  due to natural destructive factors released within the neural tissue.

 

segmentation:  The forming of the various body segments during embryological development, including the differentiation that distinguishes cervical from thoracic from lumbar and from sacral types of vertebrae.

 

sensory neurons:  Nerve cells that carry signals from the skin and muscle and special sensory organs back towards the central nervous system.

 

shiatsu:  A type of manual physical treatment for maintaining general health and relaxation, as well as for treatment of pain.

 

shimmed:  Fine tuning of the performance of a magnet, such as an MRI scanner.

 

shunt:  A catheter or tube that carries fluid to bypass it from one body space to another.

 

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